Farming systems and crop-livestock land use consensus. Tanzanian perspectives
Enclosed systems and ranching. . Pastoralists and the health of their animals. 28 .. However, compelling pastoral nomads to settle has a very unsatisfactory Experience to date suggests that technical inputs will only have a very. Pastoralism, the use of extensive grazing on rangelands for livestock production, .. In popular imagination, nomads wander from place to place without any logic . In Nigeria, such systems have had a long and unsuccessful history dating back to . Court cases between herders and farmers tended almost invariably to be. This exchange allowed the animal herders to specialise more on their Most of the time, relations between city-dwellers and farmers, on the one hand, and . even from an early date, the nomads acted as a conduit of ideas and technologies.
Competition for land is increasing as a result of population growth, overuse of the soil and climate change. With support from local authorities, sedentary farmers are responding to these developments by continuously enlarging their fields and turning pastures and corridors into cultivated lands.
It has therefore become impossible for herders to pass through the region without sparking conflict. In many cases, fields have been intentionally laid out in such a way that migrating herds must cause damage.
Rural systems of production are changing moreover. Herders have built villages and begun to cultivate fields, whilst some crop farmers are now raising livestock and fertilising their fields themselves.
At the same time, the lack of resources is forcing migratory herders to move further and further south. Since the s, they have been crossing into Nigeria, Benin and Togo, where they spend a part of the year in forests.
This practice has led to major conflicts with local authorities, municipalities and crop farmers. The conflict between herders and farmers was also greatly exacerbated by the emergence of the profession of livestock feed dealer in the s.
Feed dealers come primarily from farming families. They gather the crop residues from the fields and bring them to the cities, where they sell them to urban livestock owners. A race has evolved to get hold of the crop residues. The authorities are trying to regulate the situation by assigning each region a date from which on livestock owners are permitted access to the fields. This date is hotly contested every year.
Hide Footnote From tothree new bills were introduced to create grazing reserves, livestock routes and ranches across the country. After much wrangling, all three were dropped in November on the grounds that land use was exclusively a state government prerogative. Hide Footnote Unable to enact new laws, the federal legislature has limited itself to holding public hearings and passing resolutions. On 9 Marchthe Senate passed a resolution declaring Boko Haram insurgents were behind attacks on farming communities across Benue, Taraba, Plateau and several other states.
Hide Footnote Unsupported by any public evidence, that resolution was widely seen as a diversion, particularly as spokespeople for the herders' association had admitted committing some of the attacks in reprisal for previous wrongs.
Nigerian govt proposes ranches, herdsmen insist on grazing routes", Premium Times, 11 May Hide Footnote The hearing was not followed by any policy recommendations or action toward ending the violence. State Governments In the absence of clear federal guidance, state government responses vary. Several have established state and local peace commissions or committees to promote herder-farmer dialogue and resolve conflicts.
Crisis Group interview, former commissioner for agriculture in Gombe state, Abuja, 20 February In Benue state, the House of Assembly, on 4 Maypassed a bill prohibiting open rearing and grazing of animals and for herders to carry firearms. Hide Footnote In Benue and Taraba states, governments have introduced laws banning all open grazing. In Edo state, the government said it would create fenced grazing areas with watering facilities, requiring herdsmen to feed their cattle there and pay for the service.
Hide Footnote Herders, who consider these regulations restrictive, often fail to comply. In the Federal Capital Territory, herders still roam their cattle widely; in Taraba state, the cattle breeders' association has rejected the grazing ban law, vowing a legal challenge.
Hide Footnote Some local reactions have been more forceful. In Borno, Niger and Plateau states, authorities occasionally have expelled herder groups from specific areas, following local protests. In Aprilthe Niger state government evicted a group of herders.
Abia govt revives Bakassi Boys to guard rural communities", Vanguard, 7 May Hide Footnote He directed all community chiefs to nominate ten youths for a two-week intensive training with "reformed" Bakassi vigilantes before deployment to rural communities. Two months later, the Cross River state government announced plans to set up a 3,member "Homeland Security Service". Local officials said the members would not carry firearms, but carry out activities such as providing intelligence on herders' movements and activities.
Hide Footnote These measures may have reduced clashes in some area, but elsewhere; they have made the situation worse. The expulsion of herder groups has only deepened their resentment.
If community-based vigilante groups attack herders in the south, herders might take revenge against southerners residing in the north, thereby further widening the conflict. Civil Society Civil society responses have varied. Ethnic and community-based groups defending farmers' interests typically have organised press conferences and protests, seeking to draw national - and even international - attention to their plight.
Others, such as the pan-Yoruba socio-cultural organisation Afenifere, have set up arrangements to monitor both herders and cattle thieves. Hide Footnote In turn, livestock producers' groups and pastoralists' organisations, strenuously defend herders' interests and insist media reports of incidents are often politically motivated.
Hide Footnote Fulani umbrella groups, such as Miyetti Allah Kautal Hore, also tend to downplay herders' involvement in the violence. The back and forth between highly partisan positions further complicates the search for common ground.
Non-governmental organisations generally have been more conciliatory and constructive in response to the violence. They have focused on post-conflict reconciliation and peacebuilding, improving early warning and strengthening relations between communities and security agencies. International partners are encouraging herder-farmer dialogues through various local initiatives. Hide Footnote Likewise, on 27 Aprilthe U.
Hide Footnote There are some encouraging results. Representatives of herding and farming communities pledged to continue working for peace at a November mediation forum in Shendam, Plateau state, organised by the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue CHD with support from the German embassy. Hide Footnote And, in Aprila herder-farmer dialogue in the Udege and Agwada Development Areas of Nasarawa state, facilitated by some local politicians and community leaders, produced a peace agreement.
Hide Footnote But results remain limited and fragile. President Buhari's government and state government should acknowledge this and work together in five areas to prevent further conflict. Improve Security for Herders and Farmers An immediate step is to improve security for both herders and farming communities.
At a minimum, the federal government and its security agencies should intensify operations against cattle rustlers, improving systems to track livestock movement and trade, arresting individuals who carry illegal firearms and prosecuting suspected assailants. Strengthen police capacity to curb rustling and banditry In recent years, the federal government and governments of some northern states have initiated several joint efforts against cattle rustlers and bandits.
The operation involved four organisations: Inthe army launched two other operations against cattle rustlers and bandits in the north west, parts of the north-east and north-central zones.
Hide Footnote Some state governments, such as Katsina, Zamfara and Sokoto, also have negotiated peace agreements with the bandits, inviting them to lay down their arms and return stolen cattle in exchange for building roads, hospitals and schools in their communities and grants of cash and land to individuals. In Aprilpolice reported about 1, bandits had renounced banditry and surrendered arms.
Hide Footnote These efforts have yielded some results, recovering large numbers of stolen cattle.
On 27 Januarythe joint-anti-rustling operation reported recovering over 30, stolen cattle. Hide Footnote However, cattle rustling and banditry still persist on a significant scale. Armed groups have returned to some parts of Zamfara state where bandits seemingly had agreed to arms-for-development proposals.
Hide Footnote That said, gains produced by amnesty programs and cash rewards could prove short-lived; such programs risk entrenching a culture of violent crime and banditry among constituents who seek to leverage such activities to extract state concessions. In the near term, and together with continued attempts to reach peace deals, governments should sustain ongoing military and other security operations.
Further down the road, they should consider shifting their strategy for curbing cattle rustling and other banditry from episodic military operations to steadily deploying more and better-equipped police units in rural and forested areas where bandit groups are based.
This would allow police to respond rapidly to incidents and discourage further attacks. Improve livestock tracking Smarter animal tracking and identification systems can also curb cattle rustling. State ministries of agriculture should oversee cattle branding, certify cattle traders, monitor cattle markets and regulate abattoirs and slaughterhouses. The federal agriculture and transport ministries should renew efforts to establish safer and more efficient arrangements for transporting livestock across the country.
Although a long-distance transportation arrangement, utilising the government-run rail system, was inaugurated inthe effort was suspended shortly thereafter amid mutual accusations of bad faith and incompetence.
Hide Footnote Adoption of so-called smart devices could also help. Herders acquiring solar-powered Livestock Tracking Devices and herders' associations subscribing to and regularly updating the Cattle Rustling Information System CATRIScould help generate some of the information security agencies need to track rustlers and recover stolen cattle. It is an off-shoot of a peace project supported by MacArthur Foundation. The LTDs are micro-chips that "can track the location of cattle and send panic or emergency alerts to the authorities in times of trouble".
Crisis Group interviews, corporate services executive of mobile telecommunications company, Abuja, 12 February Prevent attacks on farming communities The federal government should follow through on promises to stop armed attacks on farming communities, especially in badly affected southern Kaduna and Benue states. To that end, federal security agencies - notably the police and Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps - will need to focus on preventive measures, including community liaison mechanisms to upgrade intelligence gathering, early warning and rapid response.
A key priority is to curb the influx and possession of illegal firearms, especially automatic rifles. The new federal whistle-blower program on illegal firearms is a promising start; it should be supported by speedily following up on informants' leads and protecting their identities. Hide Footnote Likewise, the steps taken by several state governments to curb illicit weapons should also be sustained.
Similarly, in OctoberPlateau state offered amnesty to gun fabricators and dealers who quit their illicit trade. Hide Footnote Better coordination between federal and state law enforcement would be another important step.
The former could set up an inter-agency task force, overseen by the federal justice ministry, to help states investigate major cases of herder-farmer violence and bring culpable parties to justice.
At a minimum, the Buhari administration could investigate major high-fatality incidents that have occurred under its watch. Finally, state governments also could provide greater assistance to victims of herder-farmer violence, especially those not directly involved in the violence.
Working with local and international organisations, they could, for example, expand humanitarian aid for displaced persons, especially women and children.
Support Community-based Conflict Resolution Local and community-based dispute resolution mechanisms have proved effective in both averting violence and helping communities recover from conflict. Forums that allow various constituencies - farmers, pastoralists, community vigilantes and state security agencies - to monitor, identify, discuss and manage potential threats can be particularly helpful.
These also can be used to help farmers and pastoralists explore mutually beneficial ways to coexist. For instance, in Junethe Nigeria Reconciliation and Stability Project in collaboration with the Bayelsa State Peace and Conflict Management Alliance, launched a campaign to promote peaceful co-existence between herders and farmers in Bayelsa state. Hide Footnote Wherever possible, state and local governments should support or establish such mechanisms, especially across the worst-affected north-central region.
For their part, local politicians, ethnic, religious and community leaders, as well as representatives of pastoralist and farmer associations need to speak out against violence. The media should try to provide more balanced coverage that avoids inflaming tensions through stereotyping, unfair generalisations and sensational reporting. Establish Grazing Reserves and Encourage Ranching There is urgent need to reform and improve grazing arrangements.
In Marchthe federal government announced its intent to establish grazing areas across the country, but vehement opposition from farming communities forced it to relent. Hide Footnote It needs a more nuanced approach, which takes into account local sensitivities regarding cattle roaming and open grazing, not only in the south but also in predominantly farming areas of the north-central zone.
As a first step, the federal government, working with state governments, should jointly survey, demarcate and officially document existing grazing reserves that have not been over-run by human settlements and infrastructure.
The federal government also should follow through on its plan to establish new grazing reserves in the ten northern states that have already provided 55, hectares to that end. Following local protests, the Plateau state government subsequently claimed it had not consented to establishment of any grazing reserve.
Hide Footnote It should help state governments develop these areas following the model provided by the International Fund for Agricultural Development IFADwhich is funding three reserves in Sokoto state. Each reserve will have a veterinary clinic and a nomadic school.
Making sense of Nigeria's Fulani-farmer conflict
In some states, notably Kaduna, where herder-farmer relations are extremely fraught, there is need to respect local sensitivities in deciding where reserves will be located, particularly to ensure they do not encroach on community farmlands. Hide Footnote Separately, the federal government should take steps to encourage ranching.
The Buhari's administration's Agriculture Promotion Policy APP acknowledges "the cattle value chain has become a security problem Accordingly, "a key shift is necessary: The Agricultural Promotion Policy -op. Hide Footnote Likewise, an April northern leaders' summit recommended "a concerted development of ranches" as a key step toward ending clashes.
Hide Footnote Some initial steps have been taken. In Aprila policy dialogue initiated by the federal agriculture ministry and facilitated by UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO recommended that the government formulate and implement a ten-year National Ranch Development Plan.
Hide Footnote Federal and state governments also need to work out alternative plans for the large numbers of herders who may lose their livelihoods in the transition from open grazing to ranching. Facebook Email The federal government's policy direction and stakeholders' concurrence signal a growing consensus on the imperative of shifting from open grazing to ranching.
Already, some retired military officers, former civil servants and multinational corporations have established a few large ranches. The federal government could advance this process by formulating and implementing the proposed National Ranch Development Plan. The federal ministry of agriculture and rural development, along with various other relevant local and international agencies, should apply the ideas and resolutions generated at the National Conference on Transforming the Nigerian Livestock Industry, held in Abuja in Septemberin driving the formulation and implementation of the proposed plan.
That said, governments of some states, like Benue and Taraba, that recently introduced new laws prohibiting open grazing, should exercise restraint in enforcing such laws, and encourage a phased transition to ranching. They and other state governments should promote ranches, including by clarifying processes for acquiring land and obtaining credit, devising modalities for ranch management training, and encouraging private-public partnerships.
Federal and state governments also need to work out alternative plans for the large numbers of herders who may lose their livelihoods in the transition from open grazing to ranching. Combat Desertification Some estimates suggest that during the twenty-first century, two thirds of Nigeria's eleven far northern states could become desert or semi-desert regions.
Hide Footnote Besides provoking considerable economic and livelihood losses, this would force many more pastoralists to migrate southward, risking more conflicts with the growing farming communities.
Over the longer term, therefore, federal and state governments should intensify implementation of the Great Green Wall Initiative for the Sahara and the Sahel. The project initially called for planting a 15km wide belt of trees, running 7,km across nine African countries from Senegal to Djibouti.
It was later broadened to include building water-retention ponds and other basic infrastructure, establishing agricultural production systems, and promoting other income-generating activities. Thus far, the agency's impact is scarcely felt: Hide Footnote The agency needs to be reorganised, better resourced and more goal-oriented to deliver results within the timeline.
It is not clear how much of these pledges have been honoured. Hide Footnote In the same spirit, the federal government should develop strategies for mitigating the impact of climate change, managing environmentally-induced migration, preventing conflicts over use of land and other natural resources - and implement them. The country's official development policy, called Vision These policies and plans, until now largely only on paper, should be implemented. Strengthen Regional Cooperation Some dimensions of the herder-farmer conflict can only be fully addressed within a regional framework.
This will require Abuja to work in close coordination with neighbouring countries both to manage human and cattle movements across borders and to fight illicit arms trafficking. Following revelations that foreign herders were involved in attacks on farming communities, Agriculture Minister Ogbeh said the government would present proposals at the African Union "to compel member countries to take steps to prevent their herdsmen from grazing into neighbouring countries", warning there could be "a major international crisis if we do not stop it now".
- Early Pastoralists
- Herders against Farmers: Nigeria’s Expanding Deadly Conflict
- Nomadic pastoralism
Nigeria deploys troops; to ban cattle from villages, cities", Premium Times, 3 March Hide Footnote To that end, the government should engage the governments of Cameroon, Chad and Niger, as well as the ECOWAS commission, to reach agreement on how to collectively monitor and regulate international transhumance pastoralism, in accordance with relevant international instruments including ECOWAS Protocols.
Hide Footnote It should also strengthen regional cooperation in combating desertification and mitigating the impact of climate change. Conclusion Escalating conflicts between herders and farmers are among Nigeria's most pressing security challenges. This could potentially generate bloodshed on an even wider scale unless President Buhari's government makes ending this violence a national priority.
State governments also need to formulate and implement steps to address the needs and grievances of all sides transparently and equitably. Strengthening law enforcement, supporting local conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms, establishing and protecting grazing reserves would all make a significant and immediate difference.
In the longer term, the greater challenge will be curbing the arms influx and, crucially, addressing the environmental trends that are forcing herders south. Herders are compelled to re-establish older management systems while trying to develop new markets for their products in a situation where inputs are no longer subsidized.
Pastoralism and trade The flexibility that is characteristic of pastoral nomadism, combined with its ability to transport goods and people, has meant that pastoralism has long been associated with two other major livelihood strategies: Prior to the evolution of modern transport, animals were the only method of moving large quantities of goods across land.
Consequently, pastoralists often became involved in trade caravans, guiding, managing and supplying the appropriate livestock, and sometimes themselves becoming traders. In the Sahara and the countries of the Persian Gulf, this evolved into a fairly sophisticated form of blackmail, whereby the nomads guided the caravans and extracted monetary payments to prevent them from raiding those same caravans Sweet, Long-distance trade in the Andes was a key function of llama breeders, and elaborate multiple-point trade systems have been recorded, based on exchange relationships that lasted many generations Orlove, Similar, camel-based, systems traverse the deserts between eastern Turkey and northwestern India, while the movement of yaks and long-legged sheep is essential to the distribution of trade goods in the Himalayan region Downs and Ekvall, ; Jina, A caravan trade still exists in the more inaccessible regions of the pastoral zone, but its economic importance has been much reduced by modern transport.
Frederiksen describes the transformation of the Hazarbuz, who are pastoral nomads of eastern Afghanistan and form a section of the Pashtun. Because their migration routes coincided with a major arm of the silk route, they became more involved in transporting and then trading, typically bringing tea from Bukhara into Afghanistan. As they became more and more successful, an increasing number of households gave up nomadism and settled in Kabul or elsewhere until, by the mids, less than 10 percent of the Hazarbuz were actually involved in pastoralism.
The Soviet invasion scattered the population still further, and many Hazarbuz now operate from Pakistan, while those remaining in Afghanistan are unable to migrate because of the security situation. It is no coincidence that pastoralism has also been associated with another type of trade: The consolidation of national borders and the evolution of contradictory tariffs in neighbouring countries makes nomads the ideal group for smuggling contraband between such countries. This is particularly highly developed in the Near East and Central Asia, where extremely different economies border one another and long featureless frontiers are almost impossible to police.
Bourgeois and Bourgeois describe the pastoral nomad smuggling systems of Afghanistan prior to the Soviet invasion, and Abu-Rabia the important role that the Negev Bedouin played in Israel in the s, when they smuggled in both meat and scarce consumer goods with the tacit approval of the authorities. More recently, the Bedu in Jordan have played a key role in smuggling primary products out of Iraq, tax-free consumer goods from Saudi Arabia to all other countries and small products, such as cigarettes, into the Syrian Arab Republic.
Similarly, the Rashaida in the Sudan are key intermediaries in trade, moving fat-tailed sheep across the Red Sea to Saudi Arabia and receiving consumer goods in return.
Nigeria: Herders Against Farmers - Nigeria's Expanding Deadly Conflict
This has interesting consequences for both livestock production and intervention in the livestock sector. In many places where smuggling and trade are key sources of income, pastoralist economic dependence on livestock is slight, although trade depends on the pastoral way of life.
As a consequence, animals are often few and little investment is made in either reproduction or health, since returns on these are low compared with, for example, bribing officials or buying four-wheel-drive vehicles.
So, when proposed development projects assume that pastoralism is the basis of the local economy since speaking openly about smuggling is politically unacceptablethey usually run into sand, literally and metaphorically, as herders do not make the investments required by the project because their attention is directed elsewhere. Pastoralism and warfare Pastoralism and raiding have been associated since ancient times; Herodotos reported on the Scythian horsemen 2 years ago.
Barfield gives a history of the dynamic relationship between the Chinese empire and its nomadic raiders from the steppes over a period of 3 years. Chatwin describes in some detail the ebb and flow of the association between pastoralism and military cultures across Asia. There is little doubt that the domestication of the horse contributed significantly to the evolution of both raiding cultures and large States. Horses made possible the rapid movement of large armies and the transport of goods, personnel and messages in a way that was impractical with any other livestock species.
The cyclical nature of the conflict between nomads and the State was first described by the mediaeval North African historian, Ibn Khaldun, in his study of history, The Muqadimah Rosenthal, This type of centre-periphery warfare has largely ceased, probably mainly as a result of the introduction of the aeroplane. Once the State can move around freely in rugged and remote areas, moving troops and weapons to inaccessible zones, the previous advantage held by the nomads disappears.
Only when the State is too impoverished to outmanoeuvre the pastoralists in this way can nomads persist with dissent. Nonetheless, the ability of nomads to move in hostile terrain continues to be perceived as a threat by national governments, as witnessed by the continuing hostilities between the Saharan nomads — the Tuareg and the Teda — and the countries in whose territory they live.
In some regions where the horse was an introduced exotic, such as West Africa, large States failed to develop. Although large North African horses were brought across the desert in the mediaeval period, the high costs of keeping them alive in a tsetse zone meant that they could never support an empire as large as those of Central Asia Law, ; Blench, Nonetheless, as horses became accustomed to West Africa, they played an increasing role in warfare and, had colonialism not intervened, would perhaps have begun to underpin large State structures.
One aspect of the colonial and postcolonial era that is relevant to this type of conflict is changing social structure and the breakdown of acceptance of former hierarchical relations.
Just as in the West, special interest groups increasingly challenge the process whereby the governments of nation States make decisions for them, so sections of society at the bottom of the social pyramid in Africa have begun to assert their rights.
After the colonial conquest, slaves were given their freedom legally, although realizing that freedom was often a lengthy process. Gradually, however, resentment at their former status has surfaced and they have responded either by denying their slave origins or with antagonistic behaviour towards their former owners, some of whom have been reduced to poverty by the major droughts of the s and s.
In more subtle ways, authority systems that depended on farmers being subservient to pastoralists gradually collapsed in the postcolonial era. Court cases between herders and farmers tended almost invariably to be decided in favour of herders. However, after independence, farmers gradually began to take control of local authorities, and thus judicial systems, and their own appointees made decisions in courts.
The result has often been a reversal of the previous bias. In the case of seasonal pastoral migrations, committees were established throughout English-speaking West Africa to ensure that established cattle routes were respected by both farmers and pastoralists.
These committees functioned into the early years of independence, but have now been largely disbanded. Many years of the seasonal migration of cattle herds have created fertile north-south swathes. Declining soil fertility in many regions has made these attractive places to farm, outweighing the dangers of possible conflict.
Farmers have also been emboldened by taking control of the local or regional administration in many areas. Pastoralism and hunting In many environments, pastoralism and agriculture have effectively eliminated all but small animals and commensals.
Nomadic pastoralism - Wikipedia
However, especially in some parts of Africa and Central Asia, herders still interact with significant wildlife populations. This has two opposing consequences: Pastoralists have no sympathy with predators, and usually end up in conflict with conservation lobbies, especially in Mongolia see section on Predation, p.
Curiously, few pastoralists are hunters. In contrast to farmers, who often regard hunting as a prestigious activity, pastoralists view hunting as a minor activity, often focused on particular species.
In Mongolia, the main focus of hunting activity is the marmot, which is not high-status game compared with large mammals. Similarly, pastoralists over much of Africa do not hunt. It has been noted that areas of the Serengeti where pastoralists are resident suffer less from the depredations of poachers than do areas that are bordered by farming villages.
However, in some pastoral subarctic systems, such as that of the Saami of the Kola peninsula, hunting plays an important role in overall subsistence. The Saami have relatively small reindeer herds which they exploit principally for household meat.
Their herding system allows them to leave the reindeer to run wild for much of the year, and during this period the fishing, hunting and trapping of mammals predominate, occasionally for meat and also for the pelts of high-value species sold for cash. The Kazakhs combine all these sources of income, hunting with hawks on a recreational basis, hunting meat species and trapping fur animals and selling the pelts.
Pastoralism and fishing Pastoralists can be clearly divided in terms of their attitude to aquatic resources. In some regions, fishing and the gathering of shellfish are essential to subsistence, while elsewhere pastoralists regard such foods as taboo. For example, along the coast of the Horn of Africa, from southern Egypt to northern Kenya — an extremely dry region dominated by pastoral peoples — a prohibition on marine resources means that these go virtually unexploited, despite the sometimes desperate straits to which populations are reduced in times of drought or warfare.
Inland, however, in the swamps of the southern Sudan, Nilotic pastoral peoples such as the Dinka and the Nuer regard fish as an integral part of their subsistence. Subgroups of the Turkana have always exploited the fish in Lake Turkana. Mongolian lakes remain largely unfished, but throughout much of the subarctic region, for example among the Chukchi and Saami, the hunting of marine mammals and fishing are regarded as essential.
The sources of these rather marked cultural differences are not easy to determine, although it is evident that they are of great antiquity.
In some cases, this is because fishing people and pastoralists have systems of interlocking land use, for example, in the Inland Delta in Mali Gallais, a, Making more effective use of aquatic resources in pastoral areas might be important for increasing food security, although experience suggests that changing entrenched dietary preferences is difficult.
However, there could be considerable potential for increasing cooperation between pastoral and fishing peoples in order to make effective use of a rich but fragile environment. Some fishers are nomadic and, in some circumstances, the State treats these people in the same way as it treats nomadic livestock producers.