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The power and prestige of Solomon as represented in the Bible has been relative ceramic dating methods, they assumed that the Iron Age (IA) in .. For this study, 20 new radiocarbon dates were made from the The distributions shown in gray outlines represent the simple calibrated radiocarbon ages. Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science () . based on a literal interpretation of the Bible, was that the earth is the center of the universe around .. Today, however, far more accurate methods of dating fossils are available, The relative ages of rocks also were calculated early in the s by noting what . Relative age dating lesson outline answer key - Find a man in my area! Free to join Sw science final exam study guide ch 1 ruth lessons list. Using the bible.
It also had great practical applications, in that the exploration of the world by European seafarers used the more accurate understanding of celestial mechanics to assist in navigation. Page 30 Share Cite Suggested Citation: But that experience is now informed not only by the beauty and majesty of the heavens, but by a deeper understanding of nature and by an appreciation of the power of the human intellect.
This triumph of the human mind says a great deal about the nature of science. First, science is not the same as common sense.
Common sense indicates that the sun does rise and set. Nevertheless, there can be other explanations of that phenomenon, and one of them, the rotation of the earth on its axis, is responsible for day and night. A concept based on observation proved to need extensive modification as new observations accumulated. Second, the statements of science should never be accepted as "final truth.
Nevertheless, in the case of heliocentricism as in evolution, the data are so convincing that the accuracy of the theory is no longer questioned in science. Third, scientific progress depends on individuals, but the contributions of one individual could be made by others. If Copernicus had kept his ideas to himself, the discovery of heliocentricism would have been postponed, but it would not have been blocked, since other astronomers eventually would have come to the same conclusion.
Biologists have used construction cranes to study the many newly discovered species that live in the canopies of tropical forests, as in this research project in Panama. Similarly, had Darwin and Wallace not published their hypotheses, the concept of biological evolution would nevertheless have emerged as the accepted explanation for the history of life on earth. The same cannot be said in other areas of human endeavor; for example, had Shakespeare never published, we would most assuredly never have had his plays.
The publications of scientists, unlike those of playwrights, are a means to an end—they are not the end itself. Science Requires Careful Description What are the scientific methods that have led to our current understanding of the history of life over vast eons of time?
They begin with careful descriptions of the material being studied. The material for the study of biological evolution is life itself. One basic aspect of life is that individuals can be grouped as similar kinds, or species. Another important observation is that many species seem to be closely related to each other.
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The scientific classification of species and their arrangement into groups began with the publication in of Systema Naturae, or system of nature, by the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus to For example, Linnaeus knew seven dog-like species, and he gave each a double name.
Subsequently many more species were discovered and some of the names were changed—and continue to be changed as more information is obtained. The domestic dog is Canis familiaris; the coyote of North America is Canis latrans ; the Australian dingo is Canis dingo; and the wolf of the northern hemisphere is Canis lupus. Thus Canis is the name of the genus of dog-like animals, and the distinctive second name is the species name. Generations of scientists have discovered new species, described them, and Page 31 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Whereas Linnaeus recognized about 9, species, systematists now have recognized about 1.
The task of categorizing and describing species is still far from complete. Most species of smaller invertebrates, and many bacteria and other microscopic organisms, remain to be discovered. The plant kingdom is also incompletely known. Though the flowering plants of many areas, such as Europe and North America, are fairly well described, many other regions have not been nearly as well explored by botanists.
Recent investigations in the exceptionally diverse rainforests of South America have caused biologists to raise their estimates of the number of undescribed species. For example, a very high proportion of insects collected from the forest canopy are "new" species to science. It is now believed that the number of different species of plants and animals in the world may be ten million, or even more.
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The scientific methods used in classifying organisms have been greatly improved over time. The process begins with the intensive field work in which the animals, plants, and microorganisms are collected and carefully examined. Most will be known to a specialist, but there might be some unusual examples. However, none is likely to be a complete stranger, since the specialist will probably recognize that any puzzling specimen is similar to some familiar species. Next the specialist must check all that has been published on the group of organisms that contains the similar species.
If, after an exhaustive search, there is no record of a described species that corresponds to the one being examined, the specimen is probably a new species. The specialist will then prepare a careful description of the new species and publish it in a scientific journal. There is a permanent reward for being the describer of a new species: Thus, for example, "Homo sapiens Linnaeus" is our own proper identification, because Linnaeus was the first to give us our scientific name.
This example makes it clear that not all scientific data are derived as the result of experimentation. The conventional classification of species into seemingly natural groups involved the careful observation of a variety of different species, followed by the use of selected characteristics in an attempt to define groups of species thought to be related.
But the groupings are not always obvious. For example, it might have seemed reasonable to classify bats with birds, since the most conspicuous characteristic of each is the ability to fly. But bats are mammals. Like all mammals, their bodies are covered with hair and their young are born alive instead of hatching from eggs and are nourished by milk from the mother's mammary glands.
Although most of the species we know today were described after the time of Linnaeus, we continue to use his basic system of hierarchical classification.
For example, similar genera are united in families, similar families in orders, similar orders in classes, and similar classes in phyla.
The dog-like species listed above the genus Canisplus a number of similar but more distant dog-like animals, are grouped as the family Canidae. This family plus the families of cats, bears, seals, and weasels form the order Carnivora. The carnivores and all other animals with hair are combined as the class Mammalia. Today, many systematists group organisms according to a system known as cladistics.
By determining which traits of a species evolved earlier and which evolved later, this system seeks to classify organisms according to their evolutionary history. Science as Explanation In the quest for understanding, science involves a great deal of careful observation that eventually produces an elaborate written description of the natural world.
This description is communicated to scientists in scientific journals or at scientific meetings, so that others can build on pre-existing work. In this way, the accuracy and sophistication of the description tends to increase with time, as subsequent generations of scientists correct and extend the observations Evolutionary relationships often are depicted in diagrams that resemble the branches of trees.
Closely related species denoted S1, S2, etc. The result is a hierarchical diagram showing how different species evolved from common ancestor species represented in this diagram by the letters A through E.
Because the total sum of scientific knowledge increases relentlessly, scientific progress is something that all scientists take for granted. But science is not just description. Even as observations are being made, the human mind attempts to sort, or organize, the observations in a way that reveals some underlying order in the objects or phenomena being observed.
This sorting process, which involves a great deal of trial and error, seems to be driven by a fundamental human urge to make sense of our world. The sorting process also suggests new observations that might otherwise not be made. For example, the suggestion that bats should be grouped with mammals led to an intensified examination of the similarities between bats and rodents—first at the anatomical level, and later with respect to the genes and protein molecules that form their cells.45) Relative Age Dating
In this case, new evidence was obtained that confirmed the suggested relationship. In other cases, the further observations inspired by a tentative grouping have caused the rejection of a new idea. Page 33 Share Cite Suggested Citation: What accounts for the relatedness of different groups of organisms? The mechanism that was proposed by Darwin directly addressed this question. It suggested that all animals classified as belonging to the same group had a common ancestor species.
That is, dogs, wolves, coyotes and all members of the genus Canis are descended from a common ancestor species that lived in the remote past. In a similar manner all species in a family, an order, a class, or a phylum share a common inheritance. How could one possibly test such a hypothesis? In the decades before Darwin proposed his hypothesis, geologists realized that the sedimentary rocks of the earth's crust contain a running diary of earth's history.
This record of past events comes about because the earth's crust is in a constant state of change. This observation might not be obvious in the lifetime of an individual, but it is dramatic over thousands of years.
Relatively flat surfaces are uplifted to form mountains, and then the mountains slowly erode to form flatlands. Storms produce powerful waves that erode cliffs at the seashore. These phenomena have the common feature of moving solid materials, and the subsequent settling out of these materials makes possible the formation of a special form of rock that contains a record of the earth's past. Consider the case of a river with a source in the mountains.
As the water moves downstream, it erodes the slopes of the mountains. Tiny grains produced by the erosion, called silt, are relatively easy to move. When the river reaches the flatlands, a lake, or the ocean, the solid material being carried by the water is deposited—often reaching great thicknesses over long periods of time.
Then the pressure of the sediments on top can cause the sediments beneath to harden into "sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks sometimes contain fossils formed from the parts of organisms deposited along with other solid materials.
Hard structures of organisms such as the bones and teeth of animals may be carried along as well. These, too, will be deposited with the silt, sand, and rocks. Under certain circumstances, these remains of organisms undergo a chemical change in which the original material is replaced by molecules that form stone.
In this way, the organic remains of living things are fossilized changed into stonecreating the evidence of ancient life studied by scientists. Because of the order in which the sediments are deposited, the most recent layer of rocks normally will be on top and the oldest layer will be on the bottom though sometimes sediments are flipped upside down by the geologic folding of rock layers.
Also, the fossils in each layer usually will be of those organisms that lived at the time the layer was formed. Thus, the fossils in the lower layers will represent species that lived earlier than those found in the upper layers. The relative position of fossils tells only which are older and which younger.
The evolutionary origins of species are inferred from the morphological relations among fossils. If the difference is only one foot, one might guess the interval of time is less than if two fossils are separated by 50 feet of rock layers. Today, however, far more accurate methods of dating fossils are available, as described on the next page. Because these methods are based on the known rates of radioactive decay, they provide valuable measures of absolute time.
The scientific study of fossils is called paleontology, and the methods used for their identification and classification are similar to those used for living species. But in some respects the task of the paleontologist is far more difficult. Many species lack hard parts such as bones and shells, and such organisms almost always decay without becoming fossilized. This is the case for many groups of soft-bodied invertebrates—such as worms of many kinds, jellyfish, and protozoans.
Even for such species as mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, death is usually followed by the skeleton being dismembered and the bones scattered. For this reason, whereas isolated bones are often fossilized, it is exceptionally rare for an intact skeleton to be found. Tiny fossils first reveal the existence of bacteria 3. But the organisms that lived between these two dates lacked hard parts and, hence, were rarely preserved as fossils. Then, about million years ago, a dramatic change took place.
At the beginning of the Cambrian period, animals evolved that had calcified shells and other types of body coverings that had a far better chance of becoming fossilized.
These fossils demonstrate that Cambrian seas were populated with a variety of invertebrates. The earliest vertebrate fossils date from about million years ago. Thereafter early amphibians and reptiles appeared. Birds and mammals appear in the fossil record only about million years ago, while dinosaurs first appear about million years ago and disappear suddenly about million years later.
In the s, when Darwin began his studies, the essential features of the fossil record were known although absolute dates had not yet been determined. Many thousands of living species had been described, and it was clearly recognized that they could be organized into various groups—suggesting that they are somehow relatives. In addition, analysis of the fossil record revealed that the organisms on the ancient earth had undergone major changes over time—with whole groups of animals appearing, persisting for long periods of time, and then disappearing.
Darwin was an unusually keen observer. Instead, the natural world to him was a gigantic, very challenging puzzle that demanded an explanation for its otherwise bewildering complexity. Why are different organisms so similar? Why has there been a succession of different kinds of species throughout geologic time?
Certain observations seemed particularly important. In South America, the only continent where living armadillos were found, Darwin discovered fossil evidence for the prior existence of ancient species that had many of the unique features of living armadillos, yet were clearly different.
Such fossils were found nowhere else in the world.
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Why were both living and ancient armadillo-like species confined to the same geographical region? On the Galapagos Islands, miles off the coast of Ecuador, Darwin observed many distinct living species of birds and reptiles that closely resembled each other—yet were different on each tiny island. Why, for example, should the beak size of the Dating the Earth One of the greatest scientific triumphs of the last two centuries has been the discovery of the vast expanse of geologic time.
Early methods of calculating the age of the earth relied on measures of the rate of sedimentation or the cooling of the earth from an initially molten state. The relative ages of rocks also were calculated early in the s by noting what kinds of fossils the rocks contained. But the absolute age of the earth and the timing of many events in geologic history required the discovery late in the 19th century of a previously unknown phenomenon: Some elements, such as uranium, undergo radioactive decay to produce other elements.
By measuring the quantities of radioactive elements and the elements into which they decay in rocks, geologists can determine how much time has elapsed since the rock cooled from an initially molten state. For example, the oldest known rocks are found in Greenland and date from about 3.
Scientists believe the earth's age to be about 4. Radiometric dating also shows that the period of earth's history during which large fossils can be readily found in rocks began only about million years ago.
Radiometric dating draws on information and insights from many areas of science. For example, it requires that the rate of radioactive decay is constant over time and is not influenced by such factors as temperature or pressure—conclusions supported by extensive research in physics.
It also assumes that the rocks being analyzed have not been altered over time by the migration of atoms into or out of the rocks, which requires detailed information from both the geologic and chemical sciences.
Page 36 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In The Origin of Species, he explained that ''the inhabitants of each quarter of the world will obviously tend to leave in that quarter closely allied though modified descendants.
However, a few pre-Cambrian organisms left traces of their existence. Some ancient rocks contain stromatolites—the remnants of bacteria that grew in columns like stacked pancakes right. A timeline of evolution demonstrates the tremendous expanse of geologic time compared to the period since humans evolved.
Each higher scale details part of the scale beneath it. While the estimated times of various evolutionary events continue to change as new fossils are discovered and dating methods are refined, the overall sequence demonstrates both the scope and grandeur of evolutionary change.
Page 37 Share Cite Suggested Citation: And why were the various types of animals on these islands related, but distinct from, the animals in Ecuador, whereas those on the otherwise very similar islands off the coast of Africa were related to the animals in Africa instead? Darwin could not see how these observations could be explained by the prevailing view of his time: It looked instead as though species could evolve from one into another over time, with each being confined to the particular geographical region where its ancestors happened to be—particularly if isolated by major barriers to migration, such as vast expanses of ocean.
Further they reject inspiration of the Bible and view David and Solomon as mythical people who never lived. The atheism of these Bible map creators lurks in every city the place on their maps.
Great care has been taken in utilizing satellite imagery to get a perfect, distortion free map of topography. Most commercially available maps today that you find in books and Bibles are highly distorted.
Most other bible maps come from atlases which contain huge distortions because they present the entire earth on a flat, two-dimensional view.
Our maps have a 5 km from the surface resolution and are almost perfect. Chronology is the science of historical dating. Great care has been taken into creating the most accurate Bible timelines available.
Most commercially available Bible chronologies are widely inaccurate. Part of the reason is that the creators of the chronologies are atheists and do not view the stories in the Bible as ever actually happening.
Consequently, these atheists will never get the correct dates for events they view as fiction. Knowing the precise GPS coordinates of a Bible city ensures it is marked exactly in the correct place on the map. The multitude of errors of city locations in commercial maps are compounded by the topographical distortions of the base maps.
So not only is the base map distorted, a city is often placed tens of kilometres from its true location. With our correct base map, we can then locate a city exactly where really is on that map ensuring the highest level of precision. Steve Rudd the author of these maps and chronologies, is a Bible believing, weekly church attending, staff archeologist at Shiloh Israel.
Most places on the map are marked with their Bible name AND the archeological site name. Archeology is a critical tool in creating Bible maps and chronologies. Before they begin to excavate a site, Archeologists make assumptions in advance which Bible city they are digging. Highly trained and experienced archeological specialists interpret and classify the pottery and objects unearthed. Findings lead to either rejecting or confirming the presupposed city location.
We have used the latest most up to date archeological information in associating an archeological site name with its correct Bible name. Bible based Satellite imagery using GPS locating which are archeologically precise. Author and creator of maps and chronologies: