Doctor Faustus - Second Edition - Broadview Press
Browse All. Close. Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus and Nathaniel Woodes's The Conflict of Conscience Online Publication Date: Sep Christopher Marlow's Doctor Faustus is a play in which much appears to exist in doubles: a Good Angel and a Bad; master Online Publication Date: Nov Three of Marlowe's plays - Tamburlaine parts 1 and 2, and Dr. Faustus. .. To Robert Greene's Menaphon, of which the first extant edition is dated ( though.
Then doth the theatre eccho all aloud With gladsome noyse of that applauding crowd A goodly hoch-poch when vile rassettmgs Are match with monarchs and with mightie kings.
And though his language differs from the vulgar somewhat it will not fly from all humanity, with the Tamerlanes and Tamer-Chams of the late age, which had nothing in them but the scenical strutting and furious vociferation to warrant them to the ignorant gapers.
In it had become almost wholly forgotten; for in the preface to his play, Tamerlane, published in that year, Charles Saunders writes: Wagner, have investigated the authorities from which Marlowe Edition: They show, at some length, and at the cost of considerable research, that Marlowe was indebted to the lives of Timur, by Pedro Mexia the Spaniard, and Petrus Perondinus.
Mexia's Silva de varia lecion, published at Seville inobtained great popularity, and was translated into Italian, French, and English. The English translation, known as Fortescue's The Foreste, appeared in ; and there can be little doubt that the book was an early favourite of Marlowe's.
When he determined to dramatise the story the poet probably supplemented the information derived from Mexia by a study of Perondinus' Vita magni Tamerlanis, Flor. The description of Tamburlaine's person, as given by Perondinus, seems certainly to have been in Marlowe's remembrance. Unrhymed verse of ten syllables had been employed both for epic and dramatic purposes before Marlowe's time. The Earl of Surrey, in his translation of Books ii.
Surrey was a charming sonneteer and graceful lyrist; but it would be absurd to claim that his translations from Virgil afford the slightest hint of the capabilities of blank verse. It is impossible to select six consecutive lines that satisfy the ear. Without freedom or swing the procession of languid lines limps feebly forward. When we come to Gorboduc, the first dramatic piece in which rhyme was discarded, the case is no better.
Little advance, or rather none at all, has been made in rendering the verse more flexible.
Doctor Faustus (play) - Wikipedia
Misled by classical usage, all writers before Marlowe aimed at composing blank verse on the model of Greek iambics. Confusing accent with quantity, they regarded accentuated and unaccentuated syllables as respectively long and short. Hence the aim was to end each line with a strongly accentuated syllable, immediately preceded by one that was unaccentuated; in the rest of the line unaccentuated and accentuated syllables occurred alternately.
Then, to complete the monotony, at the end of each verse came a pause, which effectually excluded all freedom of movement. This state of things Marlowe abolished. At a touch of the master's hand the heavy-gaited Edition: That the blank verse of Tamburlaine left much to be desired in the way of variety is, of course, undeniable.
Its sonorous music is fitted rather for epic than dramatic purposes. The swelling rotundity of the italicised lines in the following passage recalls the magnificent rhythm of Milton: On the authority of a memorandum in Coxeter's MSS.
This translation, if it ever existed, has not come down. The version of the Amores must belong to a somewhat earlier date. Dyce conjectures that it was written as a college exercise surely not at the direction of the college authorities.
It is a spirited translation, though the inaccuracies are manifold; in licentiousness, I am compelled to add, it is a match for the original. Its popularity was great, Edition: In Juneby order of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Marlowe's translation together with Marston's Pygmalion, Hall's Satires, and Cutwode's Caltha Poetarum was committed to the flames; but it continued to be published abroad, and some editions, with the imprint Middleborough on the title-page, were surreptitiously printed at London.
Faustus was probably composed soon after Tamburlaine. It is probable that this ballad which is perhaps identical with the Ballad of Faustus 2 preserved in the Roxburghe Collection was founded on the play. No mention of the play occurs in Henslowe's Diary-earlier than September 30,although the entries go back to February As the profits from the performance were unusually high 3 on that occasion, we may conjecture that the play had been revived after a considerable interval.
A German critic, Dr. Albers, suggests that the reference to the Prince of Parma as Edition: Whence seeks in the lines i. Albers' argument seems somewhat strained. But internal evidence amply warrants us in assigning a later date to Faustus than to Tamburlaine.
There is more of passion in Faustus, and less of declamation; the early exuberance has been pruned; the pathos is more searching and subtle; the versification, too, is freer,—more dramatic. Faustus was entered in the Stationers' Books on January 7th,but the earliest extant edition is the quarto ofwhich was republished with very slight alterations in 16a. Even the first edition gives us the play in an interpolated state; for no sane critic would maintain that the comic scenes belong entirely to Marlowe.
One instance of a certain interpolation was pointed out by Dyce. In scene XL there is an allusion to Dr. Lopus was never such a doctor. He did not come into notoriety until after Marlowe's death, and any allusion to him before would have been unintelligible to the audience. From this one passage it is plain that the first quarto does not represent the play exactly as it came from Marlowe's hand.
But on the strength of internal evidence we might go further, and say that the comic scenes are in no instance by Marlowe. As far as possible, it is well to avoid theorising, but I must state my conviction that Marlowe never attempted to write a comic scene. Muses had dowered him with many rare qualities— nobility and tenderness and pity—but the gift of humour, the most grateful of all gifts, was withheld.
The Elizabethan stage rarely tolerated any tragedy that was unrelieved by scenes of mirth. It was in vain to plead the example of classical usage, to point out that the Attic tragedians never jested. After a little fuming and fretting the poets accepted the conditions; they soon found that the demand of the audience Edition: And so was realised for the first and last time in the world's history the dream of Socrates; the theory he propounded to Agathon, who was too drunk and drowsy for argument or contradiction, as the dawn broke over that memorable symposium.
But Marlowe could not don alternately the buskin and the sock. But while the poet was pursuing his airy path the actors at the Curtain had to look after their own interests. They knew that though they should speak with the tongues of angels yet the audience would turn a deaf ear unless some comic business were provided. Accordingly they employed some hack-writer, or perhaps a member of their own company, to furnish what was required. How execrably he performed his task is only too plain.
But it is strange that Marlowe's editors should have held so distinguished a dramatist as Dekker responsible for these wretched interpolations. There is not the slightest tittle of evidence to convict Dekker of having perpetrated the comic scenes found in the quarto of Let us now consider the relationship between the quartos of and From an undoubtedly genuine entry in Henslowe's Diary ed.
As the sum was comparatively large the additions must have been considerable. Dyce at first thought that the quarto of represented the play in the shape it had assumed at the hands of Birde and Samuel Rowley. This view he afterwards modified on finding that the anonymous Taming of a Shrew,contained an obvious imitation of a line 1 first printed in ed. But the editors are agreed that the additions found in ed.
As this theory has not been put forward before, I may be excused for dwelling on it at some length. If the reader will turn to the speech of the chorus preceding scene vii. As the speech stands in the earlier edition it is very meagre; the additional lines, which were certainly beyond the reach of Birde or Samuel Rowley, give precisely what was wanted.
Either Marlowe added them when revising the play, or lines omitted in the earlier edition were restored in the later. The variations in scene xiv. At the point where Helen passes over the stage ed. Too simple is my wit to tell her praise, Whom all the world admires for majesty.
No marvel though the angry Greeks pursued With ten years'. Since we have seen the pride of Nature's works, And only paragon of excellence, Let us depart; and for this glorious deed Happy and blest be Faustus evermore.
Was this fair Helen whose admired worth Made Greece with ten years' wars afflict poor Troy. Too simple is my wit to tell her worth Whom all the world admires for majesty. In both editions the text is assuredly Marlowe's; but in this instance the first quarto seems to preserve the revised text. Later in the same scene the exhortation of the Old Man reads better in the later than in the earlier edition. The alterations are such as we might expect the author to have made on revision.
As to the Edition: In my judgment the text of the earlier edition is preferable. By delaying the catastrophe the additions seem to weaken its impressiveness. At the departure of the scholars, after they have paid their last sad farewell, our feelings have been raised to the highest pitch; and the intrusion at that moment of the Good and Evil Angels is an artistic mistake.
Nor does the entrance of Lucifer and Mephistophilis at the beginning of the scene contribute in the slightest degree to the terror of the catastrophe.
The scene as it stands in the earlier edition—the pathetic leave-taking between Faustus and the scholars, followed swiftly by the awful soliloquy —needs no addition of horror. But the new matter found in the later edition is undoubtedly powerful; it was penned by no hack-writer, but has the ring of Marlowe.
My impression is, that the text in the later edition gives us the scene in its first state; and that Marlowe on revising his work heightened the dramatic effect of the profoundly impressive catastrophe by cancelling the passages which found their way into ed, But what shall be said of the final colloquy between the scholars when they find the mangled body of Faustus on the morrow of that fearful night of storm?
To my ear the lines are solemn and pathetic, thoroughly worthy of Marlowe; but it does not on this account follow that they have a dramatic fitness. It is not improbable that the play in its un-revised state concluded with the scene between the Edition: If we retain the colloquy between the scholars, then the final moralising of the chorus would seem to be otiose; if, on the other hand, the chorus closes the play, then even the short delay caused by the ap'pearance of the scholars is felt to be a dramatic impropriety.
To the chorus, in my judgment, must be given the last word; and we must part, however reluctantly, with the tender and pitiful colloquy. But, it may be objected, what evidence have we to show that the Elizabethan dramatists ever revised their works with such care and elaboration?
Omitting all reference to doubtful cases—such as the relationship between the and quartos of Romeo and Juliet, or the and ' quartos of Hamlet—and omitting, too, the example of Ben Jonson, who was twitted by his Edition: A comparison of the text of the MS. This is the more remarkable in Heywood's case, for he was the most prolific of all the old dramatists, and might well be supposed to have had little time for correction.
For information as to the origin and growth of the Faust-legend, I refer the reader to the elaborate introductions by Professor Ward and the late Professor Wagner to their editions of Faustus. The point for us to consider is where Marlowe obtained the materials for his tragedy. In at Frankfort-on-the-Main appeared Edition: Johann Fausten, dem meitbeschreyten Zauberer und Schwartzkunstler. Two reprints were published in the same year, and three more editions followed in It was from this book that Marlowe drew his materials; but it is probable that he used an English translation, not the German original.
The earliest translation yet discovered is dated It bears the following title: John Faustus, Newly imprinted and in convenient places imperfect matter amended: It should be remembered that the book was one of those popular productions which ran the greatest risk of being thumbed out of existence.Christopher Marlowe: Doctor Faustus (ENG)
Of the first edition of the German original only a single copy preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna is now known. Dyce's quotations are from ed. It has been suggested by Dr.
- Doctor Faustus – Second Edition
- The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe
Von der Velde that the English actors who performed at the courts of Dresden and Berlin between and as shown by Mr Albert Cohn in his work on Shakespeare in Germany brought with them on their return to England at the end of the recently published Faustbuch.
Professor Ward adds a further suggestion, which deserves consideration. English translation; and that the MS. The theory is ingenious, but it is hardly safe to build on such slender foundations. A Hanswurst or Clown was introduced; the Jesuits, disliking Faustus' scepticism, converted him into a sort of Don Juan; and the two aspects of his character were afterwards combined by Goethe.
Among the plays performed by an English company at the Dresden court in was a Tragadia von Dr Faust? Although the popularity of Faustus in England is attested by the number of editions through which it passed, few early allusions to the play are discoverable. Faustus hath made the greatest noise, with its devils and such like tragical sport. Faustus is a work which once read can never be forgotten. It must be allowed that Marlowe did not perceive the full capabilities afforded by the legend he adopted; that crudeness of treatment is shown in making Faustus abandon the pursuit of supernatural knowledge, Edition: Faustus is rather a series of dramatic scenes than a complete drama.
Many of these scenes were the work of another hand and may be expunged with advantage.
Doctor Faustus - Drama Online
But what remains is singularly precious. The subtler treatment of a later age can never efface from our minds the appalling realism of the catastrophe in Marlowe's play: I'll burn my books!
How greatly was it all planned! He had thought of translating it.
The reference in the prologue to the death of the Duke of Guise shows that it was composed not earlier than December Hens-lowe's Diary contains numerous entries concerning the play, ranging from 26th February to 2ist June Edition: On ay it was entered in the Stationers' Books, but it was not published untilwhen it was edited by Thomas Heywood after its revival at Court and at the Cockpit. Inas Herr Meissner has shown, it was one of the plays performed at Graetz during the Carnival; in the previous year it had been performed at Passau.
The Jew of Malta is a very unequal work. The masterful grasp that marks the opening scene was a new thing in English tragedy. Language so strong, so terse, so dramatic, had never been heard before on the English stage. In the two first acts there is not a trace of juvenility; all is conceived largely and worked out in firm, bold strokes. Hardly Shakespeare's touch is more absolutely true and unfaltering; nor is it too much to say that, had the character been developed throughout on the same scale as in the first two acts, Barabas would have been worthy to stand alongside of Shylock.
But in the last three acts vigorous drawing is exchanged for caricature; for a sinister life-like figure we have a grotesque stage-villain, another Aaron. How this extraordinary transformation was effected, why the poet, who started with such clear-eyed vision and stern resolution, swerved so blindly and Edition: Was the artist's hand paralysed by the consciousness of an inability to work out in detail the great conception? It is more reasonable to assume that the play was required by the actors at a very short notice, and that Marlowe merely sketched roughly the last three acts, leaving it to another hand to fill in the details; or it may be that he put the play aside, under stress of more pressing work, with the intention of resuming the half-told story at a later date, an intention which was frustrated by his sudden death.
In any case it is a sheer impossibility to believe that the play in its present form represents the poet's finished work. Marlowe is not less guiltless of the extravagance and buffoonery in the last three acts of the Jew of Malta than of the grotesque and farcical additions made to Dr.
Yet it was doubtless to this very extravagance that the play owed much of its popularity. Probably he used some forgotten novel; nor is it unlikely that he had been afforded opportunities of personally studying Jewish character. The old notion that there were no Jews in England during the Elizabethan time has been shown by modern research to be wholly untenable.
Round the person of Barabas, in the two first acts, is thrown such a halo of poetry as circles Shylock from first to last His figure seems to assume gigantic proportions; his lust of gold is conceived on so grand a scale that the grovelling passion is transmuted, by the alchemy of the poet's imagination, into a magnificent ambition. Our senses are dazzled, sober reason is staggered by the vastness of Barabas' greed: And what a burst of lyric ecstacy when he clasps once more his money-bags!
Blank verse is largely reserved for the main scenes while prose is used in the comic scenes. Modern texts divide the play into five acts; act 5 being the shortest. As in many Elizabethan plays, there is a chorus which functions as a narratorthat does not interact with the other characters but rather provides an introduction and conclusion to the play and, at the beginning of some Acts, introduces events that have unfolded.
Along with its history and language style, scholars have critiqued and analysed the structure of the play. Frey wrote a document entitled In the Opening and Close of Doctor Faustus, which mainly focuses on Faustus's opening and closing soliloquies. He stresses the importance of the soliloquies in the play, saying: The soliloquies also have parallel concepts.
In the introductory soliloquy, Faustus begins by pondering the fate of his life and what he wants his career to be. He ends his soliloquy with the solution and decision to give his soul to the devil.
Similarly in the closing soliloquy, Faustus begins pondering, and finally comes to terms with the fate he created for himself. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This section possibly contains original research.
Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May This article needs attention from an expert in Literature. The specific problem is: WikiProject Literature may be able to help recruit an expert. May Faustus learns necromancy [ edit ] In the prologue, The Chorus introduces the reader to Faustus and his story.
He is described as being "base of stock"; however, his intelligence and scholarship eventually earns him the degree of a Doctor at the University of Wittenburg. During this opening, the reader also gets a first clue to the source of Faustus's downfall.
Faustus's tale is likened to that of Icaruswho flew too close to the sun and fell to his death when the sun melted his waxen wings. This is a hint to Faustus's end as well as bringing to the reader's attention the idea of hubris excessive pridewhich is represented in the Icarus story and ultimately Faustus'.
Faustus comments that he has mastered every subject he has studied. He depreciates Logic as merely being a tool for arguing; Medicine as being unvalued unless it allowed raising the dead and immortality ; Law as being mercenary and beneath him; and Divinity as useless because he feels that all humans commit sin, and thus to have sins punishable by death complicates the logic of Divinity.
He dismisses it as "What doctrine call you this? Que sera, sera" What will be, shall be.
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Faustus instructs his servant Wagner to summon Valdes and Cornelius, a famous witchcrafter and a famous magician, respectively. Two angels, called the Good Angel and the Bad Angel, appear to Faustus and dispense their own perspectives of his interest in magic and necromancy. Though Faustus seems momentarily dissuaded, he is apparently won over by the Bad Angel, proclaiming, "How am I glutted with conceit of this" "conceit" meaning the possibilities magic offers to him. Valdes and Cornnelius declare that if Faustus devotes himself to magic, great things are indeed possible with someone of Faustus' learning and intelligence.
Faustus' absence is noted by two scholars who are less accomplished than Faustus himself. They request that Wagner reveal Faustus' present location, a request which Wagner at first haughtily denies, then bombastically reveals. The two scholars worry about Faustus being corrupted by the art of Magic and leave to inform the rector of the university. That night, Faustus begins his attempt to summon a devil in the presence of Lucifer and other devils although Faustus is unaware of their presence.
After he creates a magic circle and speaks an incantation through which he revokes his baptism, a demon a representative of the devil himself named Mephistophilis appears before him, but Faustus is unable to tolerate the hideous looks of the demon and commands it to change its appearance. Faustus, seeing the obedience of the demon in changing its form, takes pride in his skill.
He tries to bind the demon to his service, but is unable to because Mephistophilis already serves Lucifer, who is also called the Prince of Devils. Mephistophilis also reveals that it was not Faustus' power that summoned him but rather his abjuration of scriptures that results in the Devil coming in the hope of claiming Faustus' soul.
Mephistophilis introduces the history of Lucifer and the other devils while indirectly telling Faustus that Hell has no circumference nor limit and is more of a state of mind than a physical location. Faustus' inquiries into the nature of hell lead to Mephistophilis saying: The pact with Lucifer[ edit ] Using Mephistophilis as a messenger, Faustus strikes a deal with Lucifer: This deal is to be sealed in the form of a contract written in Faustus' own blood.
After cutting his arm, the wound is divinely healed and the Latin words Homo, fuge! Mephistophilis brings coals to break the wound open again, and thus Faustus is able to take his oath written in his own blood. Wasting his skills[ edit ] Faustus begins by asking Mephistophilis a series of science-related questions.
However, the demon seems to be quite evasive and finishes with a Latin phrase, Per inoequalem motum respect totes "through unequal motion with respect to the whole thing". This sentence has not the slightest scientific value, thus giving the impression that Mephistophilis is untrustworthy. Faustus then asks who made the world, a question which Mephistophilis refuses to answer Mephistophilis knows that God made the world.
When Faustus announces his intention to renounce magic and repent, Mephistophilis storms away. The good and evil angels return to Faustus: This is the largest fault of Faustus throughout the play: Lucifer, accompanied by Beelzebub and Mephistophilis, appears to Faustus and frightens him into obedience to their pact.
Lucifer then, as an entertainment, brings to Faustus the personification of the seven deadly sins. Faustus fails to see them as warnings and ignores their implication.
From this point until the end of the play, although he gains great fame for his powers, Dr. Faustus does nothing worthwhile, having begun his pact with the attitude that he would be able to do anything. Instead, he merely uses his temporary powers for practical jokes and frivolous demonstrations to the nobility.
Finally, with his allotted 24 years mostly expired and realizing that he has given up his soul for no good reason, Faustus appears to scholars and warns them that he is damned and will not be long on the Earth.
He gives a speech about how he is damned and eventually seems to repent for his deeds. Damnation[ edit ] At the end of the play, on the eleventh hour, Mephistophilis comes to collect Faustus' soul and Faustus is dragged off the stage to Hell by Mephistophilis and other devils even though Dr. Faustus tries to repent and beg for mercy from those devils. In the later 'B text' of the play, there is a subsequent scene [V. March Learn how and when to remove this template message The theological implications of Doctor Faustus have been the subject of considerable debate throughout the last century.
Among the most complicated points of contention is whether the play supports or challenges the Calvinist doctrine of absolute predestination, which dominated the lectures and writings of many English scholars in the latter half of the sixteenth century. According to Calvin, predestination meant that God, acting of his own free will, elects some people to be saved and others to be damned—thus, the individual has no control over his own ultimate fate.