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British destroyers were diverted from the Atlantic. Many older destroyers were withdrawn from convoy routes to support the Norwegian campaign in April and May and then diverted to the English Channel to support the withdrawal from Dunkirk.
By the summer ofBritain faced a serious threat of invasion. Many destroyers were held in the Channel, ready to repel a German invasion. The German submarine base in Lorient, Brittany The completion of Hitler's campaign in Western Europe meant U-boats withdrawn from the Atlantic for the Norwegian campaign now returned to the war on trade.
So at the very time the number of U-boats on patrol in the Atlantic began to increase, the number of escorts available for the convoys was greatly reduced. After the German occupation of Denmark and Norway, Britain occupied Iceland and the Faroe Islandsestablishing bases there and preventing a German takeover. It was in these circumstances that Winston Churchill, who had become Prime Minister on 10 Mayfirst wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt to request the loan of fifty obsolescent US Navy destroyers.
This eventually led to the " Destroyers for Bases Agreement " effectively a sale but portrayed as a loan for political reasonswhich operated in exchange for year leases on certain British bases in NewfoundlandBermuda and the West Indiesa financially advantageous bargain for the United States but militarily beneficial for Britain, since it effectively freed up British military assets to return to Europe.
Kennedy believed that Britain and its allies might actually lose.
The first of these destroyers were only taken over by their British and Canadian crews in September, and all needed to be rearmed and fitted with ASDIC. It was to be many months before these ships contributed to the campaign.
First Happy Time A U-boat shells a merchant ship which has remained afloat after being torpedoed. The early U-boat operations from the French bases were spectacularly successful. U-boat crews became heroes in Germany. From June until Octoberover Allied ships were sunk: The Germans had a handful of very long-range Focke-Wulf Fw Condor aircraft based at Bordeaux and Stavangerwhich were used for reconnaissance. Due to ongoing friction between the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine, the primary source of convoy sightings was the U-boats themselves.
Since a submarine's bridge was very close to the water, their range of visual detection was quite limited. The best source proved to be the codebreakers of B-Dienst who had succeeded in deciphering the British Naval Cypher No. In response, the British applied the techniques of operations research to the problem and came up with some counter-intuitive solutions for protecting convoys. They realised that the area of a convoy increased by the square of its perimeter, meaning the same number of ships, using the same number of escorts, was better protected in one convoy than in two.
A large convoy was as difficult to locate as a small one. Moreover, reduced frequency also reduced the chances of detection, as fewer large convoys could carry the same amount of cargo, while large convoys take longer to assemble. Therefore, a few large convoys with apparently few escorts were safer than many small convoys with a higher ratio of escorts to merchantmen. Instead of attacking the Allied convoys singly, U-boats were directed to work in wolf packs Rudel coordinated by radio.
The boats spread out into a long patrol line that bisected the path of the Allied convoy routes. Once in position, the crew studied the horizon through binoculars looking for masts or smoke, or used hydrophones to pick up propeller noises.
When one boat sighted a convoy, it would report the sighting to U-boat headquartersshadowing and continuing to report as needed until other boats arrived, typically at night. Instead of being faced by single submarines, the convoy escorts then had to cope with groups of up to half a dozen U-boats attacking simultaneously. The most daring commanders, such as Kretschmer, penetrated the escort screen and attacked from within the columns of merchantmen.
In truth, it had little money, and it seems to have opted to maintain the cultural status quo and the image of Empire rather than offer wide-ranged assistance to its working poor or a strong defence force for any national emergency. Here I go on my high horse!
There are aspects of government that suggest a thorough and pretty competent preparation for the conflict on the Home Front. Maybe the civilian population was more successfully marshalled than the armed forces.
I think you are right in saying there are suggestions of preparation for conflict. There were, IMHO, three weaknesses in their approach. First, a problem that affected most European nations that were active in WW1: Crudely explained, the population is divided into three groups: In WW1, young officers on leave from the trenches never spoke honestly about the horrors of trench warfare, because the sanctuary of civilian ignorance was part of the world they were protecting.
Douhet simply said that, because of aerial warfare, there would no longer be a separation between a battlefield of soldiers and a battlefield of civilians, except Civilians were not capable of surviving a military attack. Bombers would kill them in huge numbers, creating panic and revulsion so strong that governments would be forced to sue for peace.
But it turned out that there were a lot of often minor modifications Syrian maintainers made to their Russian aircraft to keep them operational in this environment. Russian maintainers are working overtime to adapt to all this.
Despite that Russia is still getting several sorties a day out of many of the fifty or so warplanes it has in Syria. On some days there are nearly a hundred air strikes. The 50 or so Russian aircraft in Syria consist of Su and Su fighter-bombers, SuM bombers and Su ground attack aircraft as well as about a dozen armed helicopters.
There are also many transport helicopters.
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The Russians have brought in UAVs and electronic monitoring equipment and have a lot better sense of where the best targets are.
This has caused a lot of damage to the rebels who find their supply facilities and other support operations being bombed. Russian air strikes in Syria are believed to have left nearly dead so far most about 70 percent of them Syrian rebels. Russia officially says it is there to fight ISIL but most of the targets are non-ISIL rebels who have been taking a lot of territory from the Assad government this year.Online Dating Guide For Women (How to Land a Quality Man Online)
The Russian air strikes have killed at least one senior al Qaeda leader and a senior commander of the FSA the largest secular rebel group. Russian warplanes are carrying out air strikes a day.
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That is far more than the U. Russia has also made a major effort to help rebuild what is left of the Syrian Air Force, which has suffered enormous over 70 percent losses since Russia has always provided tech and material spare parts support for this largely Russian fleet of warplanes and helicopters but not enough for the Syrians to keep more than 30 percent of the aircraft and helicopters operational.
The surge of Russian support will mean the Syrian Air Force can be rebuilt and be even more active. So far the American led air coalition has carried out nearly 7, air strikes 64 percent in Iraq and the rest in Syria.
There are accusations from within the American intelligence community that political leaders are hiding the truth about how the restrictive ROE are crippling the air offensive against ISIL in Iraq and Syria.
Another reason for the greater success of Syrian and Russian air strikes is that they have air controllers on the ground to make sure the right target is hit. The American political leadership forbids putting American air controllers on the ground despite the fact that American military commanders believe that the chances of these U. The locals realize this is counterproductive because the longer ISIL remains operational the more death and misery they bring to the millions of civilians they control.
The UN reports that this fighting has driven overadditional refugees to UN facilities and that has included a growing number of Islamic terrorists who cause all manner of problems in the refugee camps. Some areas around Aleppo were captured by the advancing Syrian forces and held. In addition some key roads in Idlib province were cleared of rebels. This would have great symbolic value.
Otherwise Aleppo is mainly a burden because most of the city center is damaged or destroyed by years of fighting. The newly captured areas require constant patrolling to keep the rebels out and this is where the newly arrived Russians UAVs have come in handy.
To help move the ground offensive forward Russia has sent some of its commandos to Syria. Some of these Russians are coming from months of recent service in eastern Ukraine. Exactly how these will be used is unclear but Iran already has some special operations troops in Syria and they appear to serve mainly for collecting intelligence and attacking key rebel leaders not always successfully. Iran is providing a lot of trainers, combat advisors and, judging from the number of dead Iranian officers whose families back in Iran do not hide their grief or keep it out of the media the Iranians are deeply involved in supervising these offensive operations.
Cuban troops have been reported in Syria, brought in to help train and assist Syrian troops.